East & Southeast Asia :: Indonesia
page last updated on August 3, 2010
Flag of Indonesia
Map of Indonesia
Introduction ::Indonesia
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Indonesia's first free parliamentary election after decades of repressive rule took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third-largest democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for past human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
Geography ::Indonesia
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 16
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Current Weather
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)
Irrigated land:
45,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
2,838 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
People ::Indonesia
242,968,342 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.7% (male 34,276,146/female 33,094,836)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 80,806,409/female 80,065,855)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,504,559/female 8,220,537) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.9 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 28.4 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.097% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Birth rate:
18.45 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Death rate:
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Net migration rate:
-1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 28.94 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 74
male: 33.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.05 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 68.53 years
female: 73.69 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.28 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
270,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,700 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 127
Government ::Indonesia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government type:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands)
note: in August 2005 the Netherlands announced that it had recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
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elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
Legislative branch:
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission
Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Anas URANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi Hasan ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS; Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI; Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy Fortress or Bendera
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Salman Al FARISI
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
Economy ::Indonesia
Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has weathered the global financial crisis relatively smoothly because of its heavy reliance on domestic consumption as the driver of economic growth. Although the economy slowed significantly from the 6%-plus growth rate recorded in 2007 and 2008, expanding at 4% in the first half of 2009, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth during the crisis. The government used fiscal stimulus measures and monetary policy to counter the effects of the crisis and offered cash transfers to poor families; in addition, campaign spending in advance of legislative and presidential elections in April and July helped buoy consumption. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. YUDHOYONO's reelection, with respected economist BOEDIONO as his vice president, suggests broad continuity of economic policy, although the start of their term has been marred by corruption scandals. The government in 2010 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, while addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation needs, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesia's forests and peatlands.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$969.2 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$927.5 billion (2008 est.)
$874.2 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$521 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
6.1% (2008 est.)
6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$3,900 (2008 est.)
$3,700 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15.3%
industry: 47.6%
services: 37.1% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
113.3 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
8.4% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line:
17.8% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 66
37 (2001)
Investment (gross fixed):
31.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
revenues: $93.03 billion
expenditures: $101.8 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:
27.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
28.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
9.9% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
10.83% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
8% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.6% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 125
7.21% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money:
$41.71 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 29
$47.78 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money:
$131.1 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 22
$127 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:
$166.2 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 33
$170.2 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$196.7 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 36
$98.76 billion (31 December 2008)
$211.7 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - production:
134.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - consumption:
119.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
1.023 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Oil - consumption:
1.115 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Oil - exports:
85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Oil - imports:
671,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Oil - proved reserves:
3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Natural gas - production:
70 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - consumption:
36.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Natural gas - exports:
33.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Natural gas - proved reserves:
3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Current account balance:
$10.58 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$125 million (2008 est.)
$119.5 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$139.6 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Japan 17.28%, Singapore 11.29%, US 10.81%, China 7.62%, South Korea 5.53%, India 4.35%, Taiwan 4.11%, Malaysia 4.07% (2009)
$84.32 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$116.7 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Singapore 24.96%, China 12.52%, Japan 8.92%, Malaysia 5.88%, South Korea 5.64%, US 4.88%, Thailand 4.45% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$66.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$51.64 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$150.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$155.1 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$73.57 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$68.27 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$9.681 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$6.694 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 10,399.2 (2009), 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005)
Communications ::Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use:
30.378 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
Telephones - mobile cellular:
140.578 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 6
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
865,309 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
Internet users:
30 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 11
Transportation ::Indonesia
683 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 164
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 56
under 914 m: 35 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 519
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 489 (2009)
36 (2009)
condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,800 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km (2009)
total: 8,529 km
country comparison to the world: 25
narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
total: 437,759 km
country comparison to the world: 13
paved: 258,744 km
unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)
21,579 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 5
Merchant marine:
total: 971
country comparison to the world: 11
by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4
foreign-owned: 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
Military ::Indonesia
Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 65,166,986
females age 16-49: 62,715,534 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 53,624,156
females age 16-49: 52,879,309 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,227,993
female: 2,156,427 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Transnational Issues ::Indonesia
Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; some sections of border along Timor-Leste�s Oecussi exclave and maritime boundaries with Timor-Leste remain unresolved; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)