North America :: Mexico
page last updated on August 3, 2010
Flag of Mexico
Map of Mexico
Introduction ::Mexico
The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation had been making an impressive recovery until the global financial crisis hit in late 2008. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON. In January 2009, Mexico assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2009-10 term.
Geography ::Mexico
Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
Geographic coordinates:
23 00 N, 102 00 W
Map references:
North America
total: 1,964,375 sq km
country comparison to the world: 15
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 4,353 km
border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km
9,330 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Current Weather
varies from tropical to desert
high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land: 12.66%
permanent crops: 1.28%
other: 86.06% (2005)
Irrigated land:
63,200 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
457.2 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 78.22 cu km/yr (17%/5%/77%)
per capita: 731 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
Environment - current issues:
scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
People ::Mexico
112,468,855 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.7% (male 16,469,087/female 15,786,614)
15-64 years: 64.9% (male 35,290,051/female 37,723,834)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 3,238,802/female 3,960,467) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.7 years
male: 25.6 years
female: 27.7 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.118% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Birth rate:
19.39 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Death rate:
4.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Net migration rate:
-3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
urban population: 77% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 17.84 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 108
male: 19.71 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.26 years
country comparison to the world: 71
male: 73.45 years
female: 79.22 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.31 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
200,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
Ethnic groups:
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 6.3% (Pentecostal 1.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%), other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1% (2000 census)
Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92.4%
female: 89.6% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 14 years
female: 13 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 50
Government ::Mexico
Country name:
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
Government type:
federal republic
name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
note: Mexico is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas
16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
5 February 1917
Legal system:
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 2 July 2006 (next to be held 1 July 2012)
election results: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON 35.9%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR 35.3%, Roberto MADRAZO 22.3%, other 6.5%
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 2 July 2006 for all of the seats (next to be held on 1 July 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 July 2009 (next to be held on 1 July 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAN 52, PRI 33, PRD 26, PVEM 6, CD 5, PT 5, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 237, PAN 143, PRD 72, PVEM 21, PT 13, CD 6, other 8
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
Political parties and leaders:
Convergence for Democracy or CD [Luis MALDONADO Venegas]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Beatriz PAREDES Rangel]; Labor Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Cesar NAVA Vasquez]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Jorge Antonio KAHWAGI Macari]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ORTEGA Martinez]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Broad Progressive Front or FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church
International organization participation:
APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arturo SARUKHAN Casamitjana
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Raleigh (North Carolina), Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Anchorage (Alaska), Boise (Idaho), Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Indianapolis (Indiana), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo (Texas), Las Vegas, Little Rock (Arkansas), McAllen (Texas), New Orleans, Omaha, Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Presidio (Texas), Raleigh, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson, Washington DC, Yuma (Arizona); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos PASCUAL
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX: [52] (55) 5511-9980
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
consulate(s): Merida, Nogales
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a catus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not have anything in its white band
Economy ::Mexico
Economy - overview:
Mexico has a free market economy in the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has nearly tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2007, during its first year in office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass pension and fiscal reforms. The administration passed an energy reform measure in 2008, and another fiscal reform in 2009. Mexico's GDP plunged 6.5% in 2009 as world demand for exports dropped and asset prices tumbled, but GDP is expected to post positive growth late in 2010. The administration continues to face many economic challenges, including improving the public education system, upgrading infrastructure, modernizing labor laws, and fostering private investment in the energy sector. CALDERON has stated that his top economic priorities remain reducing poverty and creating jobs.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.482 trillion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$1.585 trillion (2008 est.)
$1.565 trillion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.017 trillion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-6.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
1.3% (2008 est.)
3.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,500 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
$14,400 (2008 est.)
$14,400 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.3%
industry: 32.9%
services: 62.8% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
46.2 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 13.7%
industry: 23.4%
services: 62.9% (2005)
Unemployment rate:
5.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
4% (2008 est.)
note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
Population below poverty line:
18.2% using food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 36.3% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
48.2 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 28
53.1 (1998)
Investment (gross fixed):
21.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
revenues: $208.6 billion
expenditures: $229 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:
37.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
35.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 118
6.5% (2008)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.9% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 106
8.71% (31 December 2008)
Stock of money:
$115.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$92.34 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of quasi money:
$146.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$147.4 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of domestic credit:
$331.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$287 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$352 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 25
$232.6 billion (31 December 2008)
$397.7 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
-7.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Electricity - production:
245 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Electricity - consumption:
181.5 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Electricity - exports:
1.288 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
584 million kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
3.001 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Oil - consumption:
2.078 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Oil - exports:
1.225 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Oil - imports:
479,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Oil - proved reserves:
10.5 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Natural gas - production:
60.35 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Natural gas - consumption:
59.8 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - exports:
688 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Natural gas - imports:
11.84 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Natural gas - proved reserves:
372.7 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Current account balance:
-$10.12 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
-$15.89 billion (2008)
$229.7 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$291.3 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners:
US 72.25%, Canada 6.51% (2009)
$234.4 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$308.6 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
Imports - partners:
US 56.7%, China 9.35%, South Korea 5.21% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$99.86 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$95.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$177 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$200.4 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$307.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$295.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$52.99 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$45.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:
Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar - 13.64 (2009), 11.016 (2008), 10.8 (2007), 10.899 (2006), 10.898 (2005)
Communications ::Mexico
Telephones - main lines in use:
20.667 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 14
Telephones - mobile cellular:
79.4 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 11
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; despite improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, the public remains poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
domestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is slightly less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 70 per 100 persons in 2008
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 851, FM 726, shortwave 15 (2009)
Television broadcast stations:
729 (2009)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
12.716 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 8
Internet users:
23.26 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 16
Transportation ::Mexico
1,744 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 3
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 246
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 85
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 38 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,498
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 426
under 914 m: 1,005 (2009)
1 (2009)
gas 22,705 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,875 km; oil 8,688 km; oil/gas/water 228 km; refined products 6,520 km (2009)
total: 17,516 km
country comparison to the world: 16
standard gauge: 17,516 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
total: 366,095 km
country comparison to the world: 18
paved: 132,289 km (includes 6,279 km of expressways)
unpaved: 233,806 km (2008)
2,900 km; (navigable rivers and coastal canals) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 34
Merchant marine:
total: 55
country comparison to the world: 67
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 7, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 4, passenger/cargo 11, petroleum tanker 23, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 2, Hong Kong 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 20 (Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 4, Panama 2, Portugal 1, Spain 3, Venezuela 5, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Manzanillo, Morro Redondo, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz
Military ::Mexico
Military branches:
Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito, includes Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM)); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico, ARM, includes Naval Air Force (FAN), naval infantry) (2009)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 28,475,126
females age 16-49: 30,048,077 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 22,893,649
females age 16-49: 25,401,642 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,108,032
female: 1,069,885 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
0.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Transnational Issues ::Mexico
Disputes - international:
abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 5,500-10,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
major drug-producing nation; cultivation of opium poppy in 2007 rose to 6,900 hectares yielding a potential production of 18 metric tons of pure heroin, or 50 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased to 8,900 hectares in 2007 and yielded a potential production of 15,800 metric tons; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 90% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)