South Asia :: Pakistan
page last updated on August 3, 2010
Flag of Pakistan
Map of Pakistan
Introduction ::Pakistan
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have helped the two countries begin to work through their issues. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track.
Geography ::Pakistan
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:
total: 796,095 sq km
country comparison to the world: 36
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Current Weather
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated land:
182,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
233.8 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)
per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
People ::Pakistan
177,276,594 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 32,907,906/female 30,950,226)
15-64 years: 59.8% (male 55,153,071/female 50,807,705)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,563,117/female 3,894,569) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 21.2 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 21.2 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.513% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Birth rate:
25.09 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Death rate:
7.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Net migration rate:
-2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
urban population: 36% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 65.34 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 27
male: 68.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.62 years
country comparison to the world: 165
male: 63.84 years
female: 67.49 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.28 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
96,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:
Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%
Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 155
Government ::Pakistan
Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type:
federal republic
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007; amended 19 April 2010
Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
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elections: the president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions
Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-Q 21, MMA 9, PML-N 7, ANP 6, MQM 6, JUI-F 4, BNP-A 2, JWP 1, NPP 1, PKMAP 1, PML-F 1, PPP 1, independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 7, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court
Political parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544
consulate(s) general: Boston (Honorary Consulate General), Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Chicago, Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Economy ::Pakistan
Economy - overview:
Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment. Between 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily raised development spending. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 5-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors - despite severe electricity shortfalls - but growth slowed in 2008-09 and unemployment rose. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.3% in 2008, and 14.2% in 2009. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated since 2007 as a result of political and economic instability. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis, but during 2009 its current account strengthened and foreign exchange reserves stabilized - largely because of lower oil prices and record remittances from workers abroad. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, but Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures have left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education, healthcare, and electricity production, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$449.3 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$437.5 billion (2008 est.)
$421.9 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$168.5 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
3.7% (2008 est.)
6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
$2,500 (2008 est.)
$2,500 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.8%
industry: 24.3%
services: 54.9% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
53.78 million
country comparison to the world: 10
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2009 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 43%
industry: 20.3%
services: 36.6% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
12.6% (2008 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
Population below poverty line:
24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 26.5% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.6 (FY07/08)
country comparison to the world: 109
41 (FY98/99)
Investment (gross fixed):
18.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
revenues: $22.94 billion
expenditures: $31.54 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:
46.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
51% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
20.3% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
15% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 43
10% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of money:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$65.05 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$32.21 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 59
$23.49 billion (31 December 2008)
$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:
-3.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Electricity - production:
90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Electricity - consumption:
72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
59,140 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Oil - consumption:
373,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Oil - exports:
30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Oil - imports:
319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Oil - proved reserves:
339 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Natural gas - production:
37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Natural gas - consumption:
37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Natural gas - proved reserves:
885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Current account balance:
-$2.895 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
-$15.66 billion (2008 est.)
$18.44 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
$21.22 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:
US 15.87%, UAE 12.35%, Afghanistan 8.48%, UK 4.7%, China 4.44% (2009)
$28.47 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$38.22 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:
China 15.35%, Saudi Arabia 10.54%, UAE 9.8%, US 4.81%, Kuwait 4.73%, Malaysia 4.43%, India 4.02% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$13.77 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
$8.903 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$52.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
$46.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$28.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$25.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.05 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
$1.03 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 81.41 (2009), 70.64 (2008), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005)
Communications ::Pakistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
4.546 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 33
Telephones - mobile cellular:
91.44 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 9
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 91 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; approximately 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
226,236 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 61
Internet users:
18.5 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 20
Transportation ::Pakistan
145 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 38
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 98
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 8 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 47
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 24 (2009)
19 (2009)
gas 10,402 km; oil 2,011 km; refined products 787 km (2009)
total: 7,791 km
country comparison to the world: 28
broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)
total: 259,197 km
country comparison to the world: 20
paved: 172,827 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 86,370 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
total: 15
country comparison to the world: 105
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 19 (Comoros 4, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Military ::Pakistan
Military branches:
Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 45,829,360
females age 16-49: 41,716,682 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 35,774,936
females age 16-49: 34,572,451 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,144,574
female: 2,000,479 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Transnational Issues ::Pakistan
Disputes - international:
various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 1,043,984 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)