Africa :: Togo
page last updated on August 3, 2010
Flag of Togo
Map of Togo
Introduction ::Togo
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
Geography ::Togo
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
total: 56,785 sq km
country comparison to the world: 125
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
56 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Current Weather
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
People ::Togo
country comparison to the world: 104
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.2% (male 1,281,311/female 1,274,736)
15-64 years: 55.9% (male 1,699,065/female 1,768,372)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 68,275/female 108,082) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 19.4 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.741% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Birth rate:
36.23 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Death rate:
8.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Net migration rate:
urban population: 42% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 55.51 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 42
male: 62.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.99 years
country comparison to the world: 187
male: 57.71 years
female: 62.34 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.74 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
130,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
9,100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 7 years (2000)
Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2002)
country comparison to the world: 156
Government ::Togo
Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal (adult)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);
head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kadangha Limbiya BARIKI
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300
telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501
Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy ::Togo
Economy - overview:
This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.202 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
$5.11 billion (2008 est.)
$5.054 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.804 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
1.1% (2008 est.)
1.9% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$900 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
$900 (2008 est.)
$900 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 47.4%
industry: 25.4%
services: 27.2% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
2.595 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 110
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1%
Investment (gross fixed):
18.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
revenues: $458.6 million
expenditures: $536.6 million (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
8.7% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
4.75% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 117
4.25% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of money:
$712.6 million (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
$624.9 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money:
$414.9 million (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 140
$383.9 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:
$674,300 (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 136
$590.7 million (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity - production:
230 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Electricity - consumption:
640 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
514 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Oil - consumption:
21,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Oil - exports:
1,547 bbl/day (2005)
country comparison to the world: 119
Oil - imports:
15,270 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Current account balance:
-$142 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
-$295 million (2008 est.)
$709 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
$740 million (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Germany 17.57%, Ghana 12.74%, Burkina Faso 11.02%, India 10.22%, Belgium 7.1%, Benin 6.92%, Netherlands 5.94%, Mali 4.41% (2009)
$1.196 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
$1.291 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
China 36.58%, France 8.64%, Netherlands 6.76%, India 5.06%, US 4.4% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$670 million (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
$581.8 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 483.21 (2009), 447.81 (2008), 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005)
note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
Communications ::Togo
Telephones - main lines in use:
140,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 136
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.547 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 133
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 30 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
784 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 163
Internet users:
350,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 120
Transportation ::Togo
8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 162
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2009)
total: 532 km
country comparison to the world: 114
narrow gauge: 532 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 7,520 km
country comparison to the world: 144
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)
50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 104
Merchant marine:
total: 10
country comparison to the world: 113
by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Bangladesh 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 1, Lebanon 1, Syria 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Kpeme, Lome
Military ::Togo
Military branches:
Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Ground Forces, Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, FAT), National Gendarmerie (2009)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,462,206
females age 16-49: 1,463,189 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 983,283
females age 16-49: 1,004,887 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 71,081
female: 69,969 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Transnational Issues ::Togo
Disputes - international:
in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2007)
Illicit drugs:
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)