Middle East :: Turkey
page last updated on August 3, 2010
Flag of Turkey
Map of Turkey
Introduction ::Turkey
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO; it holds a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council during 2009-10. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.
Geography ::Turkey
Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
total: 783,562 sq km
country comparison to the world: 37
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Current Weather
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)
Irrigated land:
52,150 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
234 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 39.78 cu km/yr (15%/11%/74%)
per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)
Natural hazards:
severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
People ::Turkey
77,804,122 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.9% (male 10,708,999/female 10,229,102)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 26,323,403/female 25,747,740)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 2,190,593/female 2,604,285) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.1 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.4 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.272% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Birth rate:
18.28 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Death rate:
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Net migration rate:
0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
urban population: 69% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 24.84 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 86
male: 25.89 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.23 years
country comparison to the world: 126
male: 70.37 years
female: 74.19 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups:
Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
4% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 105
Government ::Turkey
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government type:
republican parliamentary democracy
name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987, 1995, 2001, and 2007; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007
Legal system:
civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BABACAN (since 1 May 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Bulent ARINC (since 1 May 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
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elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held by July 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note - seats by party as of 12 January 2010 - AKP 337, CHP 97, MHP 69, BDP 20, DSP 6, DP 1, TP 1, independents 11, vacant 8 (BDP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list; DP and TP switched to their respective parties after having been elected to parliament as an independent or on the list of another party); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]; Democratic Party or DP [Husamettin CINDORUK]; Felicity Party or SP [Numan KURTULMUS] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Yalcin TOPCU]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Huseyin ERGUN]; Turkey Party [Abdullatif SENER]; Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Umit BOYNER]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Namik TAN
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description:
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam
Economy ::Turkey
Economy - overview:
Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for about 30% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, and while the state remains a major participant in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, this role has been diminishing as Turkey's privatization program continues. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Real GDP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Due to global economic conditions, GDP fell to a 0.9% annual rate in 2008, and contracted by about 6% in 2009. Inflation fell to 6.5% in 2009 - a 34-year low. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy has been burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to continue boosting foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI stood at more than $180 billion at year-end 2009. Privatization sales are currently approaching $39 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines also are being planned to help move Central Asian gas to Europe via Turkey. In 2007 and 2008, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Turkey's financial markets and banking system also weathered the 2009 global financial crisis and did not suffer significant declines due to banking and structural reforms implemented during the country's own financial crisis in 2001. Economic fundamentals are sound, but the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indicators in 2010 as the global economic slowdown continues to curb demand for Turkish exports. In addition, Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, uncertainty related to policy-making, and fiscal balances leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$863.3 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$914.5 billion (2008 est.)
$906.3 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$608 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-5.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
0.9% (2008 est.)
4.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$11,200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
$12,100 (2008 est.)
$12,100 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.3%
industry: 25.6%
services: 65.1% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
24.74 million
country comparison to the world: 24
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2009 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 29.5%
industry: 24.7%
services: 45.8% (2005)
Unemployment rate:
14.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
11.2% (2008)
note: underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008
Population below poverty line:
17.11% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 56
43.6 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
16.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
revenues: $145.3 billion
expenditures: $180.6 billion (2009)
Public debt:
46.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
40% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.3% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 158
10.4% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
15% (22 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 4
25% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Stock of money:
$37.1 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 30
$53.25 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of quasi money:
$313.5 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 14
$311.1 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of domestic credit:
$210.8 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 32
$326.4 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$234 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 33
$117.9 billion (31 December 2008)
$286.6 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock
textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:
-11.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Electricity - production:
198.4 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Electricity - consumption:
198.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Electricity - exports:
1.12 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
790 million kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
52,980 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Oil - consumption:
579,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Oil - exports:
149,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Oil - imports:
560,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Oil - proved reserves:
284.7 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Natural gas - production:
1.014 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Natural gas - consumption:
35.07 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Natural gas - exports:
708 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Natural gas - imports:
35.77 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Current account balance:
-$13.96 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
-$41.29 billion (2008 est.)
$109.7 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$141 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners:
Germany 9.58%, France 6.08%, UK 5.79%, Italy 5.77%, Iraq 5.02% (2009)
$134.6 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$193.8 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Russia 13.99%, Germany 10.01%, China 9%, US 6.09%, Italy 5.45%, France 5.03% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$75 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$73.66 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$274 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$278.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$181.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$174 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$16.31 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$14.76 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar - 1.5548 (2009), 1.3179 (2008), 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005)
note: on 1 January 2005, the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira; on 1 January 2009, the Turkish government dropped the word "new" and the currency is now called simply the Turkish lira
Communications ::Turkey
Telephones - main lines in use:
17.502 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 18
Telephones - mobile cellular:
65.824 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 15
Telephone system:
general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
1,090 (station frequency types NA) (2009)
Television broadcast stations:
251 (2009)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
2.961 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 27
Internet users:
24.483 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 15
Transportation ::Turkey
102 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 59
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 90
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 4 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 4 (2009)
21 (2009)
gas 10,630 km; oil 3,636 km (2009)
total: 8,697 km
country comparison to the world: 23
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2008)
total: 426,951 km (includes 1,987 km of expressways) (2006)
country comparison to the world: 14
1,200 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 61
Merchant marine:
total: 612
country comparison to the world: 19
by type: bulk carrier 101, cargo 281, chemical tanker 70, combination ore/oil 1, container 35, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 28, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Italy 3, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 595 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 8, Belize 15, Cambodia 26, Comoros 8, Dominica 5, Georgia 14, Greece 1, Isle of Man 2, Italy 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 7, Malta 176, Marshall Islands 50, Moldova 3, Netherlands 1, Netherlands Antilles 10, Panama 94, Russia 80, Saint Kitts and Nevis 35, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 20, Sierra Leone 15, Slovakia 10, Tuvalu 2, UK 2, unknown 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Aliaga, Diliskelesi, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Nemrut Limani
Military ::Turkey
Military branches:
Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 20,832,658
females age 16-49: 20,337,037 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 17,447,579
females age 16-49: 17,173,063 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 695,326
female: 666,026 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
5.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Military - note:
a "National Security Policy Document" adopted in October 2005 increases the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security, augmenting the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma); the TSK leadership continues to play a key role in politics and considers itself guardian of Turkey's secular state; in April 2007, it warned the ruling party about any pro-Islamic appointments; despite on-going negotiations on EU accession since October 2005, progress has been limited in establishing required civilian supremacy over the military; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (the Kurdish problem), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities, and took charge of a NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) command in Afghanistan in April 2007; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system (2008)
Transnational Issues ::Turkey
Disputes - international:
complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)