Europe :: Andorra
page last updated on June 24, 2010
Flag of Andorra
Map of Andorra
Introduction ::Andorra
For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. For decades Andorra enjoyed its status as a small refuge of fiscal and banking freedom and benefitted from Spanish and French tourists attracted to the country's duty-free shopping. The situation has changed in recent years as Andorra started to tax foreign investment and other sectors. Tourism accounts for over 80% of Andorra's gross domestic product.
Geography ::Andorra
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references:
total: 468 sq km
country comparison to the world: 195
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Current Weather
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
People ::Andorra
84,525 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.6% (male 6,767/female 6,386)
15-64 years: 71.8% (male 31,627/female 29,054)
65 years and over: 12.6% (male 5,326/female 5,365) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.9 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 39.6 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.382% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Birth rate:
10.03 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Death rate:
6.21 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
urban population: 89% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 210
male: 3.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 82.36 years
country comparison to the world: 4
male: 80.3 years
female: 84.55 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups:
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
2.3% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 162
Government ::Andorra
Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra
Government type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces' representatives
name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Seu d'Urgel)
National holiday:
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993
Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Christian FREMONT (since September 2008) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i Oste (since 30 July 2003)
head of government: Executive Council President Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY (since 5 June 2009)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in April-May 2013)
election results: Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in March-April 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45%, Reformist Coaliton 32%, Andorra for Change 19%, Andorran Green 4%; seats by party - PS 14, Reformist Coalition 11, Andorra for Change 3
Judicial branch:
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leaders:
Andorra for Change [Juan Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; Greens of Andorra [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Joan GABRIEL i ESTANY] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); New Center [Vicenc MATEU] (formerly Andorran Democratic Center Party); Reformist Coalition [Joan GABRIEL i ESTANY] (includes the Liberal Party and New Center); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Narcis CASAL Fonsdeviela
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
Flag description:
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Economy ::Andorra
Economy - overview:
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status for some products and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.22 billion (2008)
country comparison to the world: 164
$3.66 billion (2007)
$3.588 billion (2006)
GDP (official exchange rate):
GDP - real growth rate:
2.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
2% (2007 est.)
3.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$44,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 12
$42,500 (2007)
$38,800 (2005)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
42,220 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 193
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 18.5%
services: 81% (2008)
Unemployment rate:
7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 64
0% (2007)
Population below poverty line:
8% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
revenues: $531.6 million
expenditures: $531.6 million (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 82
3.9% (2007)
Agriculture - products:
small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
NA kWh
Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh
Electricity - exports:
NA kWh
Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
$89.5 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 194
$117.1 million (2007)
Exports - commodities:
tobacco products, furniture
$1.801 billion (2008)
country comparison to the world: 155
$1.789 billion (2007)
Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, food, electricity
Debt - external:
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7306 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)
Communications ::Andorra
Telephones - main lines in use:
37,400 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 173
Telephones - mobile cellular:
64,200 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 189
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 0 (easy access to radio and television broadcasts originating in France and Spain) (2009)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (2009)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
23,421 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 98
Internet users:
59,100 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 168
Transportation ::Andorra
total: 320 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 201
Military ::Andorra
Military branches:
no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2010)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 22,776 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,338
females age 16-49: 17,395 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 396
female: 350 (2010 est.)
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Transnational Issues ::Andorra
Disputes - international:

Source: The World Factbook (CIA)